December , 2009
Freeze Zone Morphology of The Mammoth
By, Ronald Stewart Th.D. ; Ph. D.
(Bocherens H, , (2003) - Isotopic and Biochemistry and Paleocology of The Mammoth Steppe Fauna is a good example of a research paper that creates through the laboratory a diagnosis of the different kinds of fauna that have been found in mammoths that have been discovered since about 1930 in the permafrot regions of Alaska, herbivorous species like the Mammoth, the Wooly Mammoth, Bison, Wooly Bison, and Wooly Rhinocerus, has been with mixed data and the evidentiary record before this reseach paper was unclear as to the conditions and herbvorous fauna and grasses that these types of ancient animals would consume in the northern hemisphere reaches of Alaska, Siberia, and northern hemispheres of Europe. The carbon depletion and nitrogen enriched collagen
that have been found in these aforementioned animals is prduced from the dietary supplements that these types of animals were exposed to in their environments and gives new data and evidence as to the type of environmental conditions that were maintained while they were alive at that time period in earth's past enmvironmental and ecological histories for those parts of the earth back then in time
In almost every discovery made of these types of animals that still had cases where soft tissue was still attached to their skeletons and / or bones the stomach contents for example in the Beresovka mammoth and Shandrin mamoth found in 1972 was composed of a complete mammoth skeleton andd some preserved internal organs and over (260 kg)-(550-pounds) plant matter from the gastrointestinal tract was (Ukraintseva, V.V., (1993)-"Vegetation cover and environment of the “Mammoth Epoch” notes the aforementioned. (Ukraintseva V.V. (1993) also shows that the stomach contents of fauna that mamoths discovered in the permafrost regions of Alaska and Siberia with also showed fauna that would only grown in the spring and summer months of the year. (Valenswego M. and Stewart R., (2009). "The Theory of The Freeze Zone Morphology For The Mammoth proposed and presented a new theory that previous evidence strongly suggests from sedimentary drilling test in 2008 show in Anartica molusk to have been in the sedimentary geological strata provided evidence that the earth was more of a median temperature year around when these animals existed and roamed the earth being about 70-80 degrees fahrenheit year round. (Valenswego M. and Stewart R.(2009) theory
proposed these animals located in the northern hemispheres of the earth that
the reason the isotopic biochemistry of the fauna and other grasses found in the stomach and gastro-intestinal tracts of these type of animals grow primarily in the spring, summer, and fall parts of the year. That the reason longer haired like animals are found in the permafrost with hair on them is because these geographical locations of these areas of the northern hemnispheres of th earth of course became colder when winter approached. Therefore, the hair on these animals grew longer and the animals that died in the winter time under these type of anatomical morphological conditions of course would have died in the permafrost locations with longer hair on their carcasses.
(Cwynar & Ritchie. (1980) ; (Guthrie (1982) ; (Guthrie, R.D., Frozen fauna of the mammoth steppe — The story of Blue Babe), ; (Anderson et al (1994) also give evidence in their research papers that biochemical testing of the contents of almost all of these kinds of animals stomach and gastro-intestianal contents as also does ( Bocherens H. (2003), that the fauna and grasses that was found in these animals was the onlky type of "enriched fauna" that would have grown in primarily the spring summer, and fall months of the year. Therefore, this would tend to also agree with the freeze zone theory propsoed by (Valenswego M. and Stewart R. (2009) in their research paper published earlier this year.
Additional evidence that supports the freeze zone theory is (Guthrie 1990) and
(Anderson et al, (1994) report and show that in the discovery of the Mammoth known as Blue Babe that the carcass was scatered. This type of discovery strongly suggest evidentiary wise that scavenging of the carcass had taken place. This is also reported and noted in (R.D. Guthrie,(1992). Stratigraphy of the Colorado Creek mammoth) where a discovery of a horse known as (The
Selerikan Horse) had no neck or head, Apparently the horse became stuck in a bog, and could not escape and died this way with it's neck and head above the top of the bog. Because it's neck and head were the only things exposed it would be a logical deduction and plausible that scavengers devoured the head after the horse died from these circumstances. if this had taken place in a frozen condition the head and neck would not have been able to be devoured. Teeth in such like circumstances from other animals also have been discovered in these types of animals which would be secondary additional evidence that these types of situations occurred with these animals. suggesting scavenging.