Assumptions, Presumptions, and Estimations Are :
"Scientifically - Acceptable When Investigating The Unknown"
P.M. Snider. et. al, (2012) R.Stewart,,
V.E.Spaulding, Francis Benot'i, Gregorio Matuz (2012)
Submitted : August 15th, 2012
Accepted With Ammendments : August 22nd, 2012
Published : August 23rd, 2012
Current science in whatever scientific discipline, sub-discipline, or related
subject or topic area at one time or another was part of the unknown. This article is to present and demonstrate that when exploring the unknown what are acceptable methodologies in order to be able to connect the known scientific fact when compared to the unknown explored scientific area of investigation / exploration that is an ongoing situation across any and all scientific disciplines and sub-disciplines. When there is especially little data to determine exactly what is being investigated in the unknown and to be able to connect it to the known scientific data and evidence
, there has to be an "acceptable scientific methodology" that can cross all scientific investigation in being able to ascertain and determine exactly what is in the unknown, and what is not. That human beings may be able to relate to and identify with. Verily and proverbially :"Connecting The Dots" together between the known and the unknown.
What the known and unknown have in common to one degree, point, or another are most likely similarities. Finding in the unknown as to what may be similar in the known will help a scientist determine what an object or phenomenon in the unknown may be related to or be identified with to a similar object or phenomenon in known science.With a line of thinking that is based upon logical deductive scientific reasoning.
It is here that the correct methodologies to use in such circumstances and /or situations would be scientific
assumption /presumption, estimation, and and calculation is therefore :" Scientifically Acceptable ". When scientifically investigating the known and unknown therefore there is nothing anything wrong when the scientific situation and /or circumstances require making " Scientific - Estimations " in any " Field of Science " , and is " Scientifically - Acceptable " in all science disciplines.
Therefore it is scientifically acceptable to make scientific, assumptions,presumptions, calculations, and estimations across all scientific disciplines, sub-disciplines, and sub-related scientific fields .
To illustrate here are nine examples .
1). (R. Stewart et. al, (2012). "First View of Gliese-581-(d) ; A Preliminary Surface Survey". A first example is in the investigation , observations, and studies that were performed in this research paper . These presumptions involve the investigative work in the Gliese-581-(d) star system. This first involved a complex extra-solar system survey of the Gliese-581 star system. Numerous discoveries were made of this star system that tend to be consistent with what is also known about the other known confirmed extra-solar planet known as Gliese-581-e, b, and c.
This also included likely numerous moons for extra-solar planets as well. In estimations and comparisons between the known and unknown data had to be made to see where there would be similarities and consistencies in like manner. Near future articles and research papers will be written on this
2). In the same paper (page- 7) in the middle of the page is -, Fig.--(Left and Middle Image Credits)-(NASA-(2010).(Right-Image-Credit)-(Image Credit: Ronald Stewart © 2011 2012).
For instance, the estimated magnetic field for Gliese-581-(d) compared to earth presents and demonstrates a comparison of earth in a left image and middle image of earth taken by "The NASA-(2010) GOES-(Geo-Stationary-Operational-Environmental Satellite" that demonstrates in color coded sequences of the "Thermal and Co2-(carbon dioxide)-Levels" on earth compared to the imaging capabilities of the IMMI -(is the acronym which means ; "Infinite Microscopic - Macroscopic Imaging") technological process capabilities. Whereas the IMMI capabilities show the Gliese-581 (d) surface areas as (red) as the hottest thermal surface areas, followed by (Rose) colored surfaces, while (Purple Areas) indicate surface water, First View of Gliese-581-(d).
Gold) surface areas depict-(Co2)-(carbon-dioxide)-levels, (White)-cloud cover (H2O) as ice, and the (Black) surface areas mostly indicated in these regions seen in black would represent the coldest regions of this exoplanet. Which are observed at being mostly in the North and South Pole regions of this exoplanet. Estimations were given that the purple to blue primarily represent water. As had been verified when making close observation investigations of these areas in extreme closeups of this exoplanet's surface. This is the first example where "scientifically acceptable" estimations have been made on Gliese-581-(d)'s surface.
3 ).There is a large accumulative amount of evidence that the climate conditions of Gliese-581-(d) is in a transitionary stage of planetary development that somewhere in a stage process to where the climate on this exoplanet is between a Neoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic earth as it was millions of years ago. That has a considerable amount of different types of volcanic activity like would be seen on earth in examples of volcanic of strata cone, Icelandic, strombolian like, and other types of volcanic activity with some similarities like would be seen on earth and on earth and like Ra Patera on the moon Io. In which this volcanic activity primarily accounts for the red and rose like colors seen on Gliese-581-(d). Which is basically a considerable amount of :" Basaltic like " volcanically related sedimentation.
In effect the (basalt) has very iron-rich, volcanic rock making up the ocean floor of this exoplanet contains a strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite) and can locally distort compass readings. The distortion was recognized by Icelandic mariners as early as the late 18th century. More important, because the presence of magnetite gives the basalt measurable magnetic properties, these magnetic variations have provided another means to study the deep ocean floor. When newly formed rock cools, such magnetic materials record the Earth's magnetic field ". First View of Gliese-581-d ".
4). A third example involves when at times there's estimation that can be used in such cases like : " Estimation of Oceanic Wave Variances " as incorporated into scientific of oceanography as presented and demonstrated in the peer reviewed research paper by (David Johnson Ph.D.), (2004). Entitled : "The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Near shore Currents".). This peer reviewed research paper shows that at time in the science of oceanography that :" Estimation is necessary and is perfectly scientifically acceptable when there is a lack of enough scientific data in different situation involving variable wave current estimation sometimes becomes necessary " .
5). A fourth example again related to a complete different field of science is according to a recent peer reviewed research paper from Rice University (Rice University. (2010). Entitled : "Measurement with light microscopes/spectrophotometry/Beers-law " basically states : " That in all sciences that when dealing with the unknown-(in this case they use microscopy for a fourth example ".
6). (Resnick J. , and Stewart R., (2010) and (2011) entitled : " Micro-orders of Magnitude in Microscopy " reads quote :
" That making scientific estimations, calculations, and assumption / presumption is :" Scientifically Acceptable". pp. 13 - top of 14 reads : [1.2.2] - Scientifically Acceptable Dimension Estimations, Assumptions, and Calculations Pertaining To Unidentified Organisms " In many areas of exploratory and experimental science, including bio sciences the ability to estimate and make reasonable scientific assumptions is completely acceptable in all forms of science disciplines and sub-disciplines as well and can be considered quite a valuable skill. This is not only in reference to and particularly applicable to estimates and volumes, but in making estimates and assumptions especially in estimating :"the shape of organism(s)". (NOTE)-This also incorporates applications of (bacteria) and /or ( Viruses) in like manner if and when applicable).
First View of Gliese-581-d 16 What does this more specifically mean ? For example ; a 'Chaos Pelomyza' represents a real challenge in identifying these types of organisms. A second example can be found and seen in the 'Amoeboid organisms'. This type of organism is irregularly shaped. In estimating organisms or what other types of organism they could have a connection, consistency, or show similarities to, it is important to remember that outline or characteristics we can see in known IMMI - Microscopic - Imaging (pp.14).... organisms may be able to help us determine what other types of organisms the organism were applicable to both the macro and especially when explained here involving ( microscopic measurements for example), may further be explained that when making scientifically based calculations and estimates related to any investigation and / or scientific endeavor involving scientific deductive logic and reasoning , applicable to many areas of both science disciplines, sub-disciplines, or sub systems there of and especially when involving pioneering or experimental sciences and in this case including bio-sciences, the ability to calculate or estimate and make reasonable scientific presumptions are valuable skills.This is necessary in all of the aforementioned areas in order to make some quantities calculations and estimates. (Rice University. (2010).(Measurement with light microscopes/spectrophotometry/Beers law). " Unquote.-(Rice University is a well known university in the (U.S.A.). 7-9). Other examples where :" Assumption /presumption, estimation, and calculatory approaches /methodologies across all science disciplines and sub-disciplines may also be found in ( Stepišnik, Janez (2006). "Spectroscopy: NMR down to Earth". Nature p. 439 : 799–801.), (Frey, Herbert. "Satellite Magnetic Models". Comprehensive Modeling of the Geomagnetic Field ),